Hulegu was the grandson of Chinggis Khan, son of Tolui, and established the Il-Khanate of Persia (also known as the Il-Khan, or  Ilkhan). His bothers included Mongke (r. 1251-1259), Qubilai (r. 1260-1294), Arigh Boke (r. 1260-1264), and Bochek. Three of his brothers Mongke, Qubilai, and Arigh Boke were appointed as Great Khans and served in […]


Transoxania describes the portion of Central Asia that corresponds approximately to modern-day Uzbekistan. The people that originally lived on Transoxania territory were sedentary, meaning that the settlers erected permanent dwellings. These inhabitants long were affiliated with the Islamic traditions. In the 1120s, a semi-nomadic people, possibly from Mongolian lineage and originally from northern China, established a […]