The Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea; which almost completely surrounds the peninsula. The smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast also contributes to the coastline of the peninsula. The peninsula’s name originated from the Golden Horde’s provincial capital that was established after the Mongols took control of the territory. […]


Located in present-day Russia, roughly 194 miles outside of Moscow, Sarai was founded as the capital of the Golden Horde. Batu, son of Jochi and grandson of Chinggis Khan, during the thirteenth century had been engaged in a two-pronged assault across Eastern Europe. Batu’s forces defeated the Polish troops in Liegnitz in April 1241 and […]

Golden Horde

The Golden Horde, based primarily in Russia, but additionally encompassed the lands of Ukraine and Eastern Europe. The territories that comprised the Golden Horde were originally conquered and then loosely organized by Chinggis Khan. After Chinggis Khan’s death in c. 1227, the territories that would make up the Golden Horde were supposed to be inherited […]


The Mongols were first mentioned in Chinese texts from c. 600-900 A.D. The narrative “Secret History of the Mongols” is the closest source resembling a primary document that remains for the Mongols. This narrative is a mythical account of the formation of the people that would become known as the Mongols. The original narrative ends […]


In November and December of 1240, the Mongols placed a siege of the city of Kiev as part of the invasion of Rus. This ended in a decisive Mongol victory, and devastating blow to the Rus armies, especially as this conquest allowed the Mongols to expand westward into Europe. In 1237, the Mongols, under the […]

Battle of Blue Waters

By the mid-fourteenth century, the power and influence of the Golden Horde had begun to weaken. Following the deaths of their dynamic leaders, the western Mongol empire became overly involved in succession disputes for nearly twenty years. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania took advantage of the political instability and attacked the Golden Horde in the […]

Great Stand on the Ugra River

Considered the cause of Mongol retreat from Russia and the end of foreign rule in Moscow, the Great Stand on the Ugra River has been romanticized in Russian literature. Though historians downplay the battleā€™s importance, it remains ingrained in Western minds as the end of Tatar reign in Europe. Following two centuries of Mongol control […]